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We've all been lied to about Columbus.
Before Columbus sailed the Atlantic, he was a slave trader for the Portuguese, transporting West African people to Portugal to be sold as slaves. Columbus initiated the first Trans-Atlantic slave trade. Columbus, brother and son continued slave trading of indigenous peoples from the Americas to Europe, and from Africa to the Caribbean. Under his administration as viceroy and governor of the Caribbean Islands, 8 million people were killed, making his "contribution" to history the first mass genocide of indigenous peoples. The Columbus legacy is steeped in blood, violence and death.

The Transform Columbus Day Alliance believes public holidays celebrating Columbus not only teach children to honor a cruel and brutal man, but they also encourage people to ignore and possibly support racist practices that are embedded in social, economic, political, and judicial systems.

The research below will guide you in critically evaluating the role of Christopher Columbus and his legacy of his oppression and cultural domination.


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500 Years of Indigenous Resistance

Joel Achenbach.
Debating Columbus in A New World

Alabama Proclamation of American Indian Heritage Day

Larry Alexander.
Columbus to be Remembered Here

Loring Abeyeta
'Conquest brought suffering to Native Peoples

American Indian Movement Grand Governing Council.
Indigenous People's Opposition to Celebration and Glorification of Colonial Pirate Christopher Columbus

American Indian Movement of Colorado.
Open Letter to Sons of Italy from Colorado AIM
Why the American Indian Movement of Colorado Opposes Columbus Day and Columbus Day Parades

Bartolomé de las Casas
Links (1, 2)
Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies [1542]

BBC News.
Columbus Sparked a Genocide
Courtney Campbell.
Dirt Greed and Blood: Just War and the Colonization of the New World

Catholic Encyclopedia.
Christopher Columbus

Ward Churchill.
Columbus and the Beginning of Genocide in the "New World"
Columbus Day Commemorates a Holocaust
Deconstructing the Columbus Myth

Roy Cook.
Columbus Day: Holocaust and the Doctrine of Discovery

Dinesh D'Souza.
The Crimes of Christopher Columbus

Wayne Ellwood.
Hidden History: Columbus and the Colonial Legacy

Peter d'Errico.  
Lord Jeffrey Amherst & the Case of the Small Pox Blankets

Wade Frazier.
Columbus the Original  American Hero

Edward Everett Hale.
The Life of Christopher Columbus: From His Own Letters and Journals and Other Documents of His Time

Indian Country Today.
Columbus Day Articles

Library of Congress.
1492 Exhibit : An Ongoing Voyage

Nita Gonzales.
Press Statement of Escuela Tlatelolco Centro de Estudios and the Red Earth Women's Alliance 

Woody Harrelson.
I'm an American Tired of American Lies

Pip Hinman.
Five Centuries of Plunder

History of Columbus Day in Colorado

Benjamin Keen.
The Legacy of Bartolomé de Las Casas

William F. Keegan.
Destruction of the Taino

Debra Utacia Krol.
Columbus Day is nothing to celebrate

Winona LaDuke.
We are Still Here

James Loewen.
Lies My Teacher Told Me
The Truth About Columbus: A Subversively True Poster Book for a Dubiously Celebratory Occasion [.pdf]

Lewis Lord with Sarah Burke.
America Before Columbus
Charles C. Mann.

Eamon Martin.
Columbus Day Reviled by Indigenous Peoples

Kevin Miller.
Why Did Columbus Sail?

Peter Montague.
Columbus Day 1999

James Muldoon.
Columbus-bashing began in 1492
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA.
A Faithful Response to the 500th Anniversary of the Arrival of Christopher Columbus

Steve Newcomb
Colonization Day
Five Hundred Years of Injustice: The Legacy of Fifteenth Century Religious Prejudice

Canku Ota.
Why Rethink Columbus?

Luis Paz.
It's a Good Day to be Indigenous

Leonard Peltier.
Leonard's Columbus Day Statement (2001)

Carla Rahn Phillips and William D. Phillips.
Christopher Columbus in United States History:  Biography as Projection
The Textbook Columbus: Examining the Myth
Voyage of Destiny

Kathy Pollitt.
They Know When You Are Sleeping

Progressive Italians to Transform the Columbus Day Holiday [PITCH].
Statement in Support of a Respectful Celebration of Italian Heritage

Wendy Rose.
For Some, it's a Time of Mourning

Robert Royal.
1492 and Multiculturalism
Columbus on Trial: 1492 v. 1992

Kirkpatrick Sale.
What Columbus Discovered

Alvin Sanoff.
The Myths of Columbus: Conversation with Alvin P. Sanoff

Audrey Shabbas.
1492: a Time for Jubilation?

Jack Shreve.
Christopher Columbus: A Bibliographic Voyage

Richard A. Snyder.
Council of Churches condemns Columbus

Alessandra Stanley.
The Invasion of the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria

David E. Stannard.
Genocide in The Americas

Pavlos Stavropoulos.
Walk the Walk in Denver

Edward T. Stone.
Columbus and Genocide
Taíno: Pre-Columbian Art and Culture from the Caribbean

Transform Columbus Day Alliance.
Transforming Columbus Day: A Study Guide for Faith Communities

Tzvetan Todorov.
The Conquest of America

United Confederation of Taino People.
Why Celebrate Columbus Day?
Questions To Ponder As Columbus Day nears...

Pauline Moffitt Watts.
Science, Religion, and Columbus's Enterprise of the Indies
Jack Weatherford.

Examining the Reputation of Christopher Columbus

Delno C. West.
Christopher Columbus and His Enterprise to the Indies: Scholarship of the Last Quarter Century
Wallowing in a Theological Stupor or a Steadfast and Consuming Faith: Scholarly Encounters with Columbus' 'Libro de las profecias'"

Delno C. West and August Kling.
Columbus and Columbia:  A Brief Survey of the Early Creation of the Columbus Symbol in American History

John Noble Wilford.
Discovering Columbus
Dominican Bluff Yields Columbus's First Colony
Experts Debate Theory on Columbus

John Williams.
Columbus Discussed by Students

Gary Wills.
Goodbye Columbus

Samuel Wilson.
Columbus My Enemy: A Caribbean Chief Resists the First Spanish Invaders

David Yarrow.
Who was Christoforo Columbus?

Michael A. de Yoanna  and Terje Langeland.
Ground Zero for Columbus Day

Mickey Z.
Not All Italians Love Columbus

Richard Zacks.
"Explorers Don't Need a Welcome Mat" from An Underground Education [.pdf]

Howard Zinn.
Columbus and Western Civilization
Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress
The Empire and the People
Introduction from You Can't Be Neutral on a Moving Train
Unsung Heroes: Why Aren't People such as Daniel Shays, John Ross, or Fannie Lou Hamer Held Up as Role Models?
The Ultimate Power
The Use and Abuse of History


©2001-2006 Transform Columbus Day Alliance